Phishing continues to be one of the key attack vectors against both individuals and corporations.
At a personal level it’s one of the most successful ways malicious individuals and groups have for stealing credit card details and identities.
At a corporate level it is one of the most if not the most common entry points into an organisation. This is true even for the majority of the Advanced Persistent Threat type attacks that are discovered; while they may use many clever techniques to avoid detection once they are established the usual entry point is via some form of social engineering with Phishing being the most common social engineering attack.
It is due to this that I was recently asked to create a brief overview of Phishing covering what it is, why it is so prevalent, and what can be done to reduce the risk. I’m sure most of you are aware what Phishing is, but I thought I would share some of the content of my recent presentation.
I started with a brief overview of what Phishing is;
•Phishing is a fraudulent attempt, usually made through email, to steal your personal information. The best way to protect yourself from phishing is to learn how to recognize a phish.
•Phishing emails usually appear to come from a well-known organization and ask for your personal information — such as credit card number, social security number, account number or password. Often times phishing attempts appear to come from sites, services and companies with which you do not even have an account.
•In order for Internet criminals to successfully “phish” your personal information, they must get you to go from an email to a website. Phishing emails will almost always tell you to click a link that takes you to a site where your personal information is requested. Legitimate organizations would never request this information of you via email.
Wikipedia has a longer version providing an overview of Phishing;
This is actually a pretty good article covering a brief history of Phishing, various Phishing techniques, and some prevention / anti-Phishing tools and techniques.
I then went onto cover some further terminology around different types or developments of Phishing that have dramatically improved its effectiveness;
Phishing began as very generic, spam like emails. These have over time become much more realistic and targeted in order to improve the chances of success for the attacker. Various terms have been coined to describe these more targeted attacks;
•Spear Phishing refers to attacks targeted at specific individuals or groups of individuals such as employees of a company. Attackers will gather personal and / or company specific information in order to improve their chances of success.
•Clone Phishing is where a legitimate email that contains attachments or links is cloned / copied, but with malicious attachments or links. This exploits the trust that may be inferred from the email coming from a seemingly legitimate source.
•Whaling is a term for phishing attacks specifically targeting only very senior company executives.
•A further term recently coined in a blog post by Bruce Schneier was ‘laser guided precision phishing’ when describing some recent advanced phishing attacks. The clear message is that these are getting better and harder to spot all the time, and these attacks are seldom stopped by technical means;
–“Only amateurs attack machines; professionals target people”
Basically Phishing continues to evolve with attackers spending time to do recognisance on higher value targets to make the attacks look as realistic as possible in order to increase their success rate.
The final part of the presentation covered some of the methods that can be employed to reduce the risk from Phishing attacks;
•Security / Phishing awareness and training.
–Phishme (or similar service) – this has a great success rate with figures such as 60% of users clicking on Phishme email links reducing to <10% after a few cycles.
–Broader training – regular communications from our department around security awareness and things to look out for.
•Make emails from external sources more obvious, such as by changing the display name on internal emails.
–This helps improve vigilance, however so many emails are received from external sources the benefit it likely limited.
•Disable links and attachments in emails from external sources
–Likely impacts many business processes, is a white list of all ‘trusted’ email sources feasible or maintainable?
•Ensure any heuristic and zero day type protections are functioning as designed to provide maximum protection from bespoke and new attacks.
•Enforce ‘least privilege’ – no users log onto any machine with administrative or root privileges, always use ‘Run As’ or Sudo for any actions requiring elevated privileges
•Ensure any browsers in use are kept up to date with any anti-phishing add ins / tool bars installed and functioning
•Black / White listing of acceptable sending domains. White listing is more cumbersome, but more effective, black listing is easier (as with most security technologies) but less effective as it can only block known bad sites / domains. Neither of these techniques will stop spoofed emails or emails from compromised ‘good’ sites / domains.
In conclusion I would wholly recommend a solid defence in depth strategy for your organisation when it comes to security tools and strategy, but I would also say that user training is a key component of reducing the risk from Phishing; if not the most critical component.
A great way to learn more, and help improve anti-phishing techniques is to get involved with organisations such as the Anti Phishing Working Group (link above). They also offer some useful anti-phishing training.
It would be great to hear your thoughts on Phishing, and the user training vs. technical controls debate.